Main Article Content


This study explored on Communicative Orientation of English Language Classes employing the classroom discourse analysis in qualitative research design. The participants of the study are the first year Secondary Education-English students of Bukidnon State University, College of Education. The data gathering was facilitated through the use of Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching observation scheme. The findings revealed that participant organization was mainly student to student in most of the activities with the same assigned task among learners; class management is apparently through discipline, functions, and discourse analysis with limited range of topics that are highly controlled by the teacher; students’ mode of interaction was more on speaking; there is very minimal use of materials for classroom interaction. Further, the participants used L2 than L1; students were noted to have genuine requests and the giving of information were mostly relatively predictable; students’ speeches were to a minimal extent due to the activity type used; the teacher and students showed very limited use of explicit code reaction to errors committed by students; expansion, commenting, and elaboration were found to be prevalent; students were found to have a higher frequency of discourse initiation during classroom interaction; relative restriction of linguistic form was rarely observed; and two other features surfaced which were not predetermined features are on code-switching and the use of fillers. The study revealed that the first-year BSE English students’ speeches are in L2 and to a minimal extent depending on the activity type used by the teacher. Therefore, communicative events such as activity types have direct impact to the use of the different communicative features.


Communicative Competence Communicative Events Communicative Features Communicative Language Teaching Communicative Orientation

Article Details

Author Biography

Gem Aiah B. Blanco, Bukidnon State University, Philippines




How to Cite
Mier, M. R., & Blanco, G. A. B. (2022). Communicative Orientation of English Language Classes. FOSTER: Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(4), 206-223.


  1. Allen, P., Frohlich, M., & Spada, N. (1983, 1984). The Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching: An Observation Scheme. Retrieved September 10, 2014, from
  2. Allen, P., Frohlich, M., & Spada, N. (1983, 1984). Differences in the Communicative Orientation of L2 Classrooms
  3. Alfares, N, (2012). Benefits and Difficulties of Learning in Group Work in EFL Classes in Saudi Arabia
  4. Azlan, N & Narasuman. S, (2012). The Role of Code-Switching as a Communicative Tool in an ESL Teacher Education Classroom
  5. Breen, M. P., & Candlin, C. N. (1980). The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics
  6. Brown, R, (1986). Assessment of Techniques for measuring Contrast Sensitivity in Children
  8. Cunningsworth, A. (1984). Evaluating and selecting EFL Teaching materials in London: Heinemann.
  9. Denkci-Akkas, F. & Coker, B. (2016). The use of communicative approach in 9th grade EFL classes. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 65, 71-90 10.14689/ejer.2016.65.05
  10. El Karfa (2019). The Communicative Orientation of English Language Teaching Classrooms in Moroccan Secondary Schools
  11. Flyman-Mattson, A. (1999). Students’ communicative behavior in a foreign language classroom
  12. Freeman, D.L. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language teaching (2nd edition). Oxford University Press.
  13. Frohm, T. A. (2009). Does more target language use by the teacher encourage more target language use by the students?
  14. Gunduz, M. (2004). Communicative Orientation in the Language Class and the Effect of Activity Types on Interaction
  15. Halliday, M. A. K. (1970). Language structure and language function. In J. LYONS (ed.) New Horizons in Linguistics. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.
  16. Hymes, D. (1972). On Communicative Competence. Harmondworth: Penguin
  17. Ismaili, M. & Bajrami, L (2016). Information Gap Activities to Enhance Speaking Skills of Elementary Level Students
  18. Jondeya, R. (2011). The Effectiveness of Using Information Gap on Developing Speaking Skills for the Eighth Graders in Gaza Governorate Schools
  19. Kamhi, A. & Catts, H. (2008). The language basis of reading: Implications of classification and treatment of children with reading disabilities. In Bulter, K.& Silliman, E. (Eds.) Speaking, Reading, and Writing in Children with Language and Learning Disabilities: New Paradigms in Research and Practice
  20. Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience As The Source Of Learning And Development
  21. Koteyko, N. (2014). Perspectives on Corpus-Assisted Discourse Analysis
  22. Krashen, S. (1990). Second Language Acquisition: Theory Applications and some Conjectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press published in 2013
  23. Laksanasut, S, (2020). Bilingual Education in Thailand: Background, Implementation, Limitation, and Case Study
  24. Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  25. Lou, A. (2019). Discourse Analysis: a step by step guide with examples
  27. Mantei, Jessica & Kervin, Lisa K. (2009). "Authentic" learning experiences: what does this mean and where is the literacy learning? University of Wollongong.
  28. Mckay, S.L. (1994). "Developing ESL Writing Materials." System. 22, 2 (1994) 195-204.
  29. Mohan, Bernard &, Slater, Tammy (2005). A functional perspective on the critical ‘theory/practice’ relation in teaching language and science
  30. Morrow, K. (1981). English Language Teaching: A Historical Overview & Current Trends
  31. Nurpahmi, S. (2015). Improving Listening Skill by Activating Students’ Prior Knowledge
  32. Poplack, S. (1980). "Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en espa ol": toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18(7/8): 581-618.
  33. Richards, Jack (2006). Communicative Language Teaching Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  34. Rogers, C. R. (1986). Development of the person-centered approach
  35. Rost, M. (1994). The Teaching of Listening. Edited by R. Carter & D. Nunan: The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
  36. Rumenapp, J. (2016). Analyzing discourse analysis: Teachers’ views of classroom discourse and student identity
  37. Sadiku, L.M. (2015). The Importance of Four Skills Reading, Speaking, Writing, Listening in a Lesson Hour. European Journal of Language and Literature.
  38. Selinker, L. (1997). Rediscovering Interlanguage. London: Longman.
  39. Torky, S. (2006). The Effectiveness of a Task-Based Instruction Program in Developing the English Language Speaking Skills of Secondary Stage Students
  40. Toro, V., Pinza, E., Camacho-Minuche, G., & Paredes, F. (2018). The Use of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach to Improve Students’ Oral Skills
  41. Widdowson, H.G. (2007). Discourse Analysis. Oxford Introduction to Language Study